Similar to how autism is classified in various types across a spectrum, a group of researchers at the University of Missouri has released a comprehensive study on arrogance and the components associated with the trait.
According to the findings, as published in the Review of General Psychology, researchers developed a system of three types of arrogance: Individual arrogance, comparative arrogance, and antagonistic arrogance.
Although arrogance is a trait exhibited by almost everyone, the three traits could bring better insight into future research.
Nelson Cowan, a professor at the University of Missouri, said: “Everyone seems to have qualities of arrogance to some degree, and we consider the importance of arrogance on a spectrum. We contend that humankind can benefit from a better understanding of the cognitive limitations and motivational biases that, operating together, appear to contribute to arrogance.”
In the study, individual arrogance was associated with an inflated opinion of one’s own abilities, traits, and accomplishments. In comparative arrogance, individuals exaggerated the ranking of one’s own abilities, traits or accomplishments, compared to others. And, in antagonistic arrogance, individuals denigrate others based on an assumption of superiority.
Cowan added: “We were surprised at the limited amount of modern research we found on arrogance.”
“We found it didn’t all come from one specific area. So we created a one-stop resource to inspire further research, including, but not limited to, possible medical diagnoses of personality disorders.”
“Our system cannot offer a complete scientific understanding, rather it is intended to provide an analytical perspective on arrogance to help guide future psychological research.”